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Entries in family law (10)

Monday
Apr042016

Publication of family court judgements

The selection of academics and campaigners who gave evidence to the recent Scottish Parliament Justice committee 'post legislative scrutiny' of the 2006 Scottish Family Law Act were agreed on at least one matter - urging that more judgments should be published on the Scottish Courts website.

The witnesses, including Families Need Fathers Scotland and Scottish Women's Aid, agreed that the present situation in which only a small proportion of the decisions made in family law cases are published and largely at the initiative of individual sheriffs inhibits the development of a corps of knowledge that would not only keep researchers, legislators and other judges informed of judicial thinking but also help members of the public get a sense of what they can expect from the courts. 
FNF Scotland reads the judgments in those family cases that are published to learn how the courts are handling crucial issues. There have been extremely interesting judgments recently.  
In one a sheriff set out detailed reasons for refusing a mother's application to relocate to the other end of the UK because it wouldn't be in the interests of the children and also comments robustly on the admissibility of expert evidence in such cases.
In another a Court of Session judge criticised council social workers for attempting to reduce a mother's contact to virtually nil "because, having settled upon permanency as being appropriate from as early as 2009, they shut their eyes to any other possibility, viewed any behaviour by M [the mother] which did not fit with their plans as hostile and not to be trusted and, by applying a somewhat twisted logic, treated that behaviour as proof of the correctness of their determination to proceed with their plans."
In a third a sheriff in Moray warned a mother that she "needs to examine her motives.  She needs to examine her attitude.  She needs to reflect on what is truly in the interests of the child. ..." in attempting to reduce the fathers contact to zero.
But we are aware these published judgments represent only an extremely small proportion and rather random sample of the many family cases heard in the sheriff courts each year.
Most of the family cases raised in court in any year - 13,600 in 2014-5 - are settled before the stage at which a judgment is issued (2014-15 civil justice statistics). 
The great majority of family cases are recorded as divorce or dissolution  However, the 2014-15 tables list 2,582 under Parental Rights and Respnsibilities including 1,281 actions for contact and 729 actions for residence raised in the Sheriff Courts. 
The statistics give only a limited picture. They under-estimate the total number of contact and residence issues  raised in the courts. This is because only the principal crave in any court action is counted.  If the principal crave, for example, is for divorce the 'ancillary' contact and residence issues are likely to be missed by the present system for capturing data.
The tables also give a breakdown of disposals dismissed, defended and undefended, and granted in favour of the pursuer but they can't distinguish which parent is the pursuer or the extent of the contact granted in the spectrum from equally shared care to supervised or indirect contact. The Scottish government statistics service has been working on improving 'data capture' with the Scottish Court Service.
Although not every judgement contains new circumstances or significant developments of judicial interpretation we feel that there is a public interest to be served in the publication of all the family judgements in the new Sheriff Appeal Court and a more systematic approach to identifying informative judgments from the sheriff courts rather than just those which are considered noteworthy by the sheriff or judge concerned.
The judgment is already issued to the parties. Of course the text would have to be anonymised to protect the interests of the children involved before it is uploaded to the Court Service web site. That doesn't seem a major additional burden.
In order to improve case management, we need more information on what is actually happening, so that sources of delay can be identified, and inconsistency in court practice across Scotland can be avoided.
Routine publication of judgements will help to provide this information. It would also be helpful to publish more comprehensive statistics on issues which relate to case management, such as the number of child welfare hearings per case, and the number of court days taken up in family proof hearings.

 

 

Monday
Mar212016

Justice Committee supports Scottish Family Law reform

The Scottish Parliament Justice Committee has reported on its recent scrutiny of the Family Law (Scotland) Act 2006 – passing to its successor a strong case for a broad review of Scottish Family Law.

The committee invited written evidence from a range of legal academics and interested organisations, including Families Need Fathers Scotland, and held two oral evidence sessions.  Ian Maxwell of FNF Scotland took part in the second session.  Issues discussed included parental rights for unmarried fathers with children born before May 2006 and the requirement for a judge to take into account allegations of domestic abuse – or the prospect of domestic abuse – when determining the best interests if the child.

The Committee acknowledges that its scrutiny exercise was a rapid exploration of the effect and effectiveness of the Act but that the views that had been submitted to it had spilled over into a broader consideration of the state of Scotland's family law.

In effect, the Committee says, “It is a report to our successors on the next justice committee, setting out views on which aspects of family law covered in the 2006 Act they may wish to consider in more depth in the next session.”

Ian Maxwell, National Manager of FNF Scotland, said, “We are very grateful to the committee for undertaking this short, sharp exercise. The committee acknowledges that its conclusions are therefore more in the nature of observations than recommendations. However, we feel in time it may be recognised as an important milestone in the modernisation of family law in Scotland by opening up a range of fundamental issues for its successor to explore."

"It will give them the opportunity to take in new insights into family life as it is lived across Scotland, allowing the debate to move on from present entrenched positions. We hope that this will result in legislation that seeks solutions to problems that arise when parent separate that promote parenting rather than control it.”

Thursday
Aug072014

Scottish referendum: changes for separated families  

Some commentators have compared the Scottish Independence Referendum to a divorce or separation process, and the arguments about who gets what powers and resources if there is a Yes vote on September 18th may seem awfully familiar to many separated parents.

As a registered charity, Families Need Fathers Scotland cannot enter the debate on one side or another, but we can provide information about potential changes to various systems that affect separated families

Family law in Scotland is already distinct from the rest of the UK, and Scottish courts are independent, so there is not much scope for change.  However, one aspect of family law would be affected if Scotland becomes independent.

Cross-border issues, such as decisions as to whether contact cases should be heard in Scotland or elsewhere in the UK, applications to move children to other parts of the UK, and enforcement of court orders within the UK can be problematic at present.  Sometimes there is a race to reach the preferred court first.

If Scotland were to become a separate state  and sign up to to international treaties such as the Hague and Brussels Conventions some of the processes and relationships between the Scottish and other UK courts might become clearer. 

Whatever the result, FNF Scotland will continue to press for this cross-border process to be made simpler and clearer.

Health, housing and education law and systems are separate in Scotland already, so the referendum result is unlikely to bring about much change.

Social security including child support is decided at UK level and built on UK-wide law at present so there is scope for major change to occur were Scotland to separate. There have been suggestions from various sources that in the event of a No vote further powers might  devolved in this area but nothing has been specified as yet.

Child maintenance already has some different features in Scotland, such as Scottish children of 12 and over being able to apply for maintenance and the 12-month period during which a Scottish Minute of Agreement takes precedence over an application for child support.  If Scotland was no longer part of the UK a new child maintenance system would have to be created and the existing operations of the CSA and its successor the Child Maintenance Service would have to be separated out.

Many other parts of the social security system, such as the workings of Child Benefit and other benefits and tax credits, the "bedroom tax" and the support offered to single parents are currently decided almost entirely at Westminster.  A few decisions are already made by Scottish Government or individual Scottish local authorities, such as eligibility criteria for school clothing grants.

Employment law, which includes factors affecting families such as parental leave, is all decided at Westminster, although support for childcare for working parents is affected by decisions made at both Holyrood and Westminster.

None of the laws and systems affecting separated parents will change immediately, but whatever the result of the Referendum, there will be a need for both reconciliation and mediation after September 18th.

Friday
Feb072014

Reform moves a step closer for civil cases in Scotland

The newly published Courts Reform Scotland Bill is intended to overhaul the whole system in order to direct proceedings to the most appropriate judge and court and make civil justice quicker and cheaper.

The most direct areas of concern for FNF Scotland are the proposals to develop  'specialisation' among sheriffs. The tradition up to now has been that any sheriff should be able to turn his or her hand to any matter that lay within the jurisdiction of Scottish civil law. Lord Gill, who carried out the original civil justice review, recommended increased specialisation in areas such as personal injury, commercial law - or family law.

In practice the larger courts already do this to some degree but it isn't really practical in the smaller courts. Some of the smaller courts are already marked for closure with their business being moved to bigger courts.

Another significant proposal is the creation of a new category of 'summary sheriffs' who might end up dealing with some contact and residence matters.

Lord Gill's review also highlighted the need for better forms of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) which could easily be relevant to family cases. The most often mentioned form of ADR in family cases is mediation in its various forms but some separated parents have also tried arbitration.

While ADR might not need legislation, FNF Scotland will be pressing for it not to be forgotten in amongst the court reform.

Friday
Jun282013

Right of First Refusal passed in Illinois

Illinois unanimously passed the ‘Right of First Refusal’ on May 22, 2013 (HB2992, 98th Session).  Illinois becomes the first state to explicitly call for consideration of the ‘Right of First Refusal’ in a parenting plan or court order. 

‘Right of First Refusal’ is a guarantee that any time a parent needs someone to watch the children, they must ask the other parent first. This gives a parent the opportunity to watch the children when the other parent has them.

As an example, let’s say that the mother of two little boys needs to go on a two day business trip during the week when she has custody. Instead of calling a babysitter or another family member to watch the children, she must first call the boys’ father and give him the right to have the two days with the children. If he refuses, then she can find someone else to watch them.

It is the responsibility of the parent with the children to notify the other parent no later than 24 hours from the time of first learning of the need to leave the children. It is the responsibility of the other parent to respond within 24 hours of notification. It is the responsibility of parent with the additional parenting time to provide all transportation.

The court is given the maximum discretion in determining if ‘Right of First Refusal’ is in the child’s best interest. Once determined, the court issues an order that includes provisions regarding a) what would trigger the invocation of right of first refusal, such as the length of time the parent will be away from the child, b) how much advance notice the parent with the child must give the other parent, c) the amount of time by which that parent must respond, and d) transportation requirements.  The court takes into account the distance between parents, and whether a parent has restricted or denied visitation for any reason. 

Currently, Massachusetts has similar legislation pending to Increasing Parental Involvement with Childcare, HB1343. Also, Indiana and Utah both have legislation which provides a similar opportunity, but does not explicitly call for such consideration.